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How Chronic Hyperglycemia Affects Fitness Goals

How Chronic Hyperglycemia Affects Fitness Goals

Carbohydrates provide indispensable energy for cellular activities and biochemical reactions. With all the concerns about the adverse effects of excessive sugar intake, it’s vital to also understand the significance of the glycemic index and its impact on insulin resistance.

In this article, we will briefly discuss some basics about sugars, then switch gears to the positive and negative impacts of sugars on your fitness goals.

Understanding the glycemic index

The glycemic index (GI) is a metric to measure the speed at which blood sugar levels rise after the consumption of specific foods.

Foods are classified into three categories based on their GI values:

  • Low glycemic foods (GI 55 or below)
  • Medium glycemic foods (GI 56–69)
  • High glycemic foods (GI 70 and above)

These rankings sit on a scale of 0 to 100. Consuming low-GI foods is recommended since they prevent rapid blood sugar surges. Researchers identified high GI foods and the following insulin spikes as significant contributors to type II diabetes.

Therefore, it is best to include many low-GI foods in your diet. With that said, high glycemic foods are beneficial when preparing for intense physical activity, workouts, or addressing hypoglycemia.

As a rule of thumb, foods rich in refined sugars tend to have high glycemic indexes due to their rapid digestion. Conversely, foods that contain protein, fat, and fiber have a low GI. What’s more, the cooking technique, level of processing, and ripeness of foods influence the glycemic index of foods.

The role of sugars in human diet

Carbs are the primary energy source for humans since they produce Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The latter is a vital component for all biochemical reactions within human cells.

Sugars exist in two forms:

  • Simple carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, maltose)
  • Complex carbohydrates (e.g., starch, fiber)

Each type has distinct glycemic index values and digestive properties.

The impact of sugars on fitness goals

Sugars have a complex relationship with fitness goals, as they can offer quick energy bursts but also pose potential drawbacks. Understanding the positive and negative impacts of sugars on fitness objectives is essential for making informed dietary choices.

Positive impacts

Immediate energy source

As we established above, sugars have a high glycemic index, making them an ideal source of short-term energy. This characteristic is beneficial before and during workouts. When consumed in moderation before exercising, sugars can provide an energy boost, enhancing workout performance and endurance.

Quick recovery

After intense workouts, your body’s glycogen stores get depleted. Sugars can aid in replenishing these glycogen levels rapidly. This is crucial for ensuring that you’re ready for your next training session and preventing muscle fatigue.

Convenient pre-workout fuel

Sugars can also serve as a convenient and easily digestible source of energy before workouts, especially when time is limited. A small amount of simple sugars can provide the immediate fuel for a high-intensity training session.

Negative impacts

Crash your energy

While sugars offer rapid energy, they also lead to energy crashes shortly after consumption. This can be counterproductive to fitness goals, as sudden drops in energy levels may hinder workout performance and overall productivity.

Increase fat deposition

Excessive sugar consumption can lead to the storage of excess calories as body fat. This is concerning for individuals who want to lose weight or achieve a lean physique. High sugar intake can contribute to an increase in overall calorie consumption and make it harder to maintain a caloric deficit.

May lead to insulin resistance

Over time, frequent consumption of high-sugar foods can contribute to insulin resistance, a condition where the body becomes less responsive to the effects of insulin. Insulin resistance can interfere with the body’s ability to manage blood sugar levels and stop muscle hypertrophy.

Precipitate inflammation

Diets high in sugars are associated with increased inflammation in the body. Inflammation can delay recovery, increase the risk of injuries, and negatively impact overall well-being.

How to find a balance

Achieving fitness goals requires a balanced approach to sugar consumption. Instead of completely avoiding sugars, it’s important to make mindful choices:


Consume sugary foods in a smart way. For instance, just before or during intense workouts to harness their quick energy benefits.

Quality sources

Opt for natural sources of sugars, such as fruits, which provide essential vitamins, minerals, and fiber.


Limit the consumption of processed foods with added sugars. Read labels to identify hidden sources of sugars in products.


Combine sugars with proteins or healthy fats to slow down their digestion, reducing the risk of energy crashes and promoting more stable blood sugar levels.

Post-workout window

Use the post-workout period to consume sugars that aid in glycogen replenishment without significantly impacting fat storage.

Include fiber in your diet

Over the past few years, scientists and healthcare experts have been fascinated by the positive effects of fiber on many organ systems beyond the digestive tract. You see, fiber is a collection of complex carbohydrates that cannot be absorbed by the intestinal cells, which means that it stays in your gut to be later disposed of as waste.

This process has many benefits for the body, including the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk, the balance of lipid metabolism, and the optimization of the gut microbiota.

In fact, some studies showed that a fiber-rich diet optimizes physical performance and accelerates weight loss.

The best source of fiber is green leafy vegetables and some grains that contain both types of fiber (soluble and insoluble). However, if you’re not getting sufficient quantities through your diet, it might be a good idea to start taking supplements.

Takeaway message

Sugars have both positive and negative impacts on fitness goals. When consumed in moderation, sugars can provide quick energy and aid in recovery. However, excessive consumption can lead to energy crashes, fat storage, insulin resistance, and inflammation.

We hope that this article managed to explain the impact of sugars on fitness goals. If you have any further questions, please feel free to reach out to us via this link.

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